Duration of use and outcomes among people with opioid use disorder initiating methadone and buprenorphine in Ontario

A population-based propensity-score matched cohort study

Opioid agonist therapy (OAT) using either methadone or buprenorphine/naloxone is an effective first-line treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD). Despite the availability of these two forms of OAT, there are few population-based studies to guide clinicians with respect to treatment selection and none that compare their long-term effects in preventing fatal overdose in the current context of an unregulated supply dominated by fentanyl.

This study compares treatment patterns and outcomes among people starting treatment with methadone versus buprenorphine/naloxone to characterize the comparative risks and benefits of these OAT first-line treatment options.

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